Works Cited

Bridges, James.  Here’s a Book I Wrote.  Harper    

        Publishers. 2017.

Doe, John. Look, I Have a Web Site!  Society for Good 

        Websites.   2015.  

        Accessed 10 May 2017.

Keep My Web Site

          Accessed 5 June 2017.

 Jones, Susan.  “Title of the Article.”  Sports Illustrated.  

        8 March 2013. pp. 70-71    


Author’s last name, first.  Title of book.  Publisher, 

      Year of publication.

Web sources

Author (if available).  Title of the Web site.  

     Sponsoring organization (if applicable).  Date 

     Website was created or last updated (if 

     available).  Web address.  Accessed [date you 

     used the site].

Newspaper or magazine article

Author’s last name, first.. "Title of article.”  

     Magazine or newspaper.    Date of publication: 

     pages of publication. 

For specialized entries, such as personal interviews, TV shows, movies, CD’s, and others, check this site:

For the Works Cited page:

> It goes on a separate page

> Alphabetize all entries

> Double-space entries

> The first line of an entry goes to the left margin; if there’s a second line, that line gets indented a tab

> Titles of longer works (books, Web sites, magazines, newspaper) get italicized; titles of short works (articles) go in quotes.

What do I cite?

1.     Cite direct quotes

2.     Cite facts that are paraphrased (put into your own words)

3.     Cite someone else’s ideas that are paraphrased


How do I cite?

1.     Look at the bibliography card or Works Cited entry for that fact, quote, or paraphrase.  Whatever is FIRST for that entry goes in parentheses.  Then, if the entry comes from a book or magazine or newspaper, add the pages it came from (NO comma between these).


Examples from above:

            (Bridges 18)


            (Keep My Web Site Alive)

            (Jones 70-71)

More thoughts on citations

Mix up your sources

Throughout your paper, don’t limit yourself to using only one source per paragraph or section.  Use multiple sources within a paragraph; that’s why you take notes on notecards.  That makes it easier to re-arrange your notes when you plan your paper.

Direct quotes must have a lead-in

WRONG: “The initial impulse came from what the French call ‘rage militaire’ – a patriotic furor that swept North and South alike” (McPherson 16).  This will be marked NIQ (No Isolated Quotes)

RIGHT: As one historian has written, “The initial impulse came from what the French call ‘rage militaire’ – a patriotic furor that swept North and South alike” 
(McPherson 16).

When direct quotes should be used

Don’t use direct quotes any old time. Only use them when the original wording is so special or well done that you can’t really paraphrase it well.

WRONG: One historian has written, “Relatively few Union volunteers mentioned the slavery issue when they enlisted” (McPherson 19).

RIGHT: According to one historian, “Because the conventions of masculinity equated admission of fear with cowardice, however, many soldiers were reluctant to confess what surely all felt” (McPherson 36).

Don't steal words

You cannot use someone else’s words or phrases (except in direct quotes), even if you add a citation.  Say the original quote is this: “But when they deliberately shot at somebody, they had to find a way to justify it.”

THIS IS PLAGIARISM:   When Civil War soldiers deliberately shot at somebody, they had to find a way to justify their actions (McPherson 72).

If you want to use someone else’s ideas, but not quote them, change the wording twice: first when you take notes onto note cards and then again when you start writing the paper.  In that way, the words become twice removed from the source (you still have to cite!)


Original wording: “But when they deliberately shot at somebody, they had to find a way to justify it.”

First change: After soldiers shot at the other side, they tried to justify their actions with their beliefs.

In your paper:
Civil War soldiers had to make their actions jibe with their beliefs after firing on the enemy (McPherson 72).

At least one citation per source

You need at least one citation in the paper for each source listed in the bibliography.  Why?  A reader will be suspicious if three books are cited throughout the paper but seven sources are listed in the bibliography.

Also, try not to over-rely on one or two sources in citations.  Why?  If most of your citations come from one source, a reader will be suspicious that you simply copied most of the paper from one source.