English 9 Vocabulary


Lesson 1

1. a, ab             away, from                  avert (turn away), abduct (lead from)

2. ad                to                                 adhesive (stick to)

3. ante             before                          antebellum (before the war)

4. bi                 two                              bicycle

5. circum         around                         circumnavigate (sail around)

6. con, col, com      with, together       connect, collaborate, compose

7. contra          against                         contradict

8. de                down, from                 demote, detach

9. dis               apart, away                 disintegrate, disrupt

10. e, ex           out                               exit, emit

11. extra          beyond                         extraordinary

12. in, il, im     not                               inaccurate, illegal, immature
13. in, il, im     in, into                         inject, illuminate, import

14. inter           between                       international

15. intra           within                          intramural

16. ob, op        against                         object, oppose

17. per             through                        permeate

18. post           after                             post-season

19. pre             before                          previous

20. pro            forward                       propel

21. preter        beyond                        preterhuman

22. re               again, back                   repeat, return

23. retro          backward                     retroactive

24. se               apart                            secede

25. semi           half                              semicircle

26. sub, sup    under                           submarine

27. super         above                           superhuman

28. trans          across                          transcontinental

29. ultra           beyond                        ultraviolet

30. vice            in place of                   vice-president

Lesson 2

RUPT = break, burst

Abrupt -- broken off, sudden (an abrupt end to the chat)

Incorruptible  -- strongly honest (an incorruptible politician 

                                                                     takes no bribes)

Rupture (n) -- breaking (the rupture of the water pipes)


CIDE = killing, killer

Fratricide -- the killing of one’s brother

Genocide -- the killing of a race of people

Matricide -- the killing of one’s mother

Patricide -- the killing of one’s father

Pesticide -- the killing of bugs or vermin

Sororicide -- the killing of one’s sister


STRING, STRICT = bind, draw tight

Astringent (adj) -- stern, harsh (astringent measures were 

                                                                enacted in wartime)

Astringent (n) -- substance that shrinks blood vessels to 

                                                       stop the flow of blood

Constrict -- draw tight (the ropes constricted my chest)

Stricture -- harsh criticism (my suggestion is not meant as a 

                                                              major stricture)

Stringent -- strict (stringent rules were put into effect)


VOR = eat greedily

Carnivorous -- meat-eating

Devour -- eat greedily

Herbivorous -- plant-eating

Omnivorous --eating both meat and plants OR taking in 

               everything (an omnivorous reader of all books)

Voracious - greedy in eating, hard to satisfy (a voracious 



Lesson 3

VIV = live, alive

Convivial -- sociable, lively (being convivial at a party)

Vivacious -- outgoing, energetic (a vivacious personality)

Vivid -- sharp, clear, graphic (vivid descriptions of the storm)

Vivify -- to enliven or bring to life (vivify your writing with 

                                                             strong descriptions)

Vivisection -- operation on a living animal for scientific 


TORT = twist

Distort -- to twist out of shape (you  distorted my meaning)

Extort -- to blackmail (extort money for information)

Retort (v. & n.) -- to reply quickly OR a quick reply 

Torsion -- the act of twisting (torsion on a spring gives it 


Tortuous -- curving, winding, twisted (a tortuous road)

Torture -- to inflict severe pain on


Lesson 4

VICT, VINC = conquer         

Conviction -- strong belief (the protestor had powerful 


Evict -- throw out (evicted for not paying rent)

Evince  -- show, reveal clearly (evince signs of being a 


Invincible -- unbeatable (invincible superhero)

Vanquish -- overcome in battle (vanquish your enemy)

Victor - the winner or conqueror


FRACT, FRAG = break

Fractious -- irritable, easily annoyed (grew fractious during 

                                                                     the argument)

Refract -- bend light, as through a prism

Refractory -- stubborn, obstinate (the refractory mule)


OMNI = all, every 

Omnifarious -- of all kinds and varieties (omnifarious 

                                                         products on display)

Omnipotent -- all-powerful (the omnipotent ruler)

Omniscient -- all-knowing (the omniscient narrator)


Lesson 5

FLEX, FLECT = bend

Genuflect --bend the knee to touch the ground (genuflect 

                                                             before the Queen)

Inflection --  change in the pitch of your voice (inflection         

                                                             when begging)

TEN = hold, keep

Detention --  act of keeping back (detention after school)

Impertinent -- rude (an impertinent remark)

Pertinacious -- sticking to your beliefs, stubborn

Pertinent -- relevant (that comment was not pertinent)

Retentive -- able to remember or retain (a retentive mind)

Retinue -- group of followers with a famous person (the 

                                                                    star’s retinue)

Tenacity -- persistence, firmness, stubbornness

Tenet -- basic principle or belief (a tenet of education is 

                                              that reflection is important)

Tenure --  the term of office (a Senator’s tenure is six years 

                                                                          in office)

Untenable -- unable to be defended (as in a fortress or a 

                                                                         bad idea)


Lesson 6

MON = warn

Admonition -- gentle warning (an admonition to look both 


Premonition -- forewarning, anticipation of a coming event


MAND = order, command

Countermand -- issue a contrary order (the general                

                                               countermanded the decision)

Mandate -- strong command (a mandate to change the 


Mandatory -- required, not optional (mandatory practices)

Remand -- to send back, as to prison (remanded after he 

                                                                   broke parole)


CRED = believe

Credence -- belief as to whether something is true (I put no 

                                                            credence in her ideas)

Credible -- believable (her story is credible)

Credulous -- too ready to believe, gullible (so credulous 

                                                           she believes in elves)

Creed -- summary of beliefs (a religion’s creed)

Discredit -- to cast doubt on (discredited her story with 

                                                                   new evidence)

Incredulity -- disbelief (staring at her with incredulity)


Lesson 7

FID = faith

Affidavit -- sworn written statement (signed an affidavit 

                                                         about his testimony)

Bona fide -- in good faith, genuine (made a bona fide offer 

                                                                        on the car)

Confidant(e) -- someone you confide secrets in

Diffident -- shy, timid (a diffident personality)

Fidelity -- faithfulness (fidelity to marriage vows)

Fiduciary -- based on trust (fiduciary duties of a guardian)

Infidel -- non-believer in a particular faith (chasing out the 


Perfidious -- disloyal, traitorous (the perfidious actions of 

                                                                            the spy)

Perfidy -- disloyalty, treason (the perfidy of the traitor)


GRAT = thank

Gratify  -- be a source of satisfaction (gratifies me to see 

                                                                      you do well)

Gratis -- free of charge (the meal was gratis because of the 


Gratuitous -- undeserved, unmerited (a gratuitous insult)

Gratuity -- tip for a service (15% gratuity is typical)

Ingrate -- an ungrateful person

Ingratiate -- to try to win someone’s favor (ingratiate 

                                             yourself by washing my car)


Lesson 8

MOR = death

Moribund -- dying, near death

Mortification -- shame, humiliation (mortification when 

                                               they saw my baby photos)

Mortify -- to embarrass, humiliate


CORP = body

Corporal -- having to do with the body (corporal 

                                                   punishment in schools)

Corpulent -- fat, obese

Esprit de corps -- group spirit (esprit de corps improved 

                                                              with a new leader)

Habeas corpus -- order requiring a prisoner to be 

                                         charged with a crime or released


DUCT = lead

Conducive -- leading to, helpful to (brushing is conducive 

                                                                to strong teeth)

Ductile -- able to hammered thin (gold is the most ductile 


Induce -- to move by persuasion (induced to donate 


Induct -- to admit as a member (inducted into the club)

Seduction -- leading astray into wrongdoing (seduction 

                                                        from the right path)

Traduce -- to slander, speak ill of (traduced by his enemy 

                                                                 in the papers)


Lesson 9

SECUT = follow

Consequence -- that which follows logically (a consequence 

                                                                     of your actions)

Inconsequential -- unimportant, trivial (inconsequential 

                                                       differences in numbers)

Prosecute -- follow through to the end (prosecute our plans 

                                                                      with all speed)

CUR = run

Concur -- to agree (concur with your decision)

Concurrent  -- happening at the same time (two concurrent 


Cursory -- hasty, not thorough (a cursory look at my paper)

Discursive -- wandering, rambling (a discursive speech)

Excursion -- a trip, an expedition (an excursion to the park)

Incur -- to bring upon oneself (incur a penalty if you are 


Incursion -- raid, hostile invasion (an incursion into enemy   


Precursor -- forerunner (the typewriter was a precursor to 

                                                                       the computer)

Recur -- happen again (this behavior must not recur)


Lesson 10

GRESS, GRAD = step

Egress -- exit (the egress was blocked)

Gradient -- slope of a road (a steep gradient)

Progressive -- going forward to something better

Regressive -- going backwards to something worse 

                                                      (regressive behavior)

Retrograde -- going backwards to something much worse 

                                                     (retrograde decisions)

Transgress -- to go beyond limits, to break a law 

                                                      (transgress good taste)


PED = foot

Expedite --  to speed up or make easier (expedite my work)

Impede -- to block or hinder (impede driving with speed 


Impediment -- a hindrance or obstacle

Pedestrian (n) -- someone going by foot

Pedestrian (adj) -- ordinary, commonplace, dull (pedestrian 

                                                           quality of your essay)


TACT = touch

Contingent -- depending on (graduation contingent on 

                                                            passing your exams)

Intangible -- unable to be touched, hard to grasp 

                                                            (intangible effects)

Tangential -- only slightly connected (tangential remarks)


Lesson 11

PREHEND = seize, grasp

Apprehensive -- fearful, anxious (apprehensive before the 


Comprehensible -- able to be understood (comprehensible 


Comprehensive -- all-inclusive (a comprehensive exam)

Prehensile -- adapted for grabbing (monkeys with a 

                                                                 prehensile tail)

Reprehensible -- deserving blame (reprehensible behavior)


JECT = throw

Abject -- in a bad state (abject conditions of the room)

Conjecture -- a guess, inference (make a conjecture as to 

                                                                    how old I am)

Dejected -- sad, discouraged (dejected after losing)

Eject -- to throw out, expel (ejected from the airplane seat)

Interject --  insert, throw in between (interject a remark )


Lesson 12

VERT = turn

Aversion  -- turning away from, strong dislike (an aversion 

                                                                     to Thai food)

Avert -- to prevent or avoid (avert disaster )

Diversion -- entertainment, amusement (a diversion from 


Extrovert -- an outgoing, sociable person

Inadvertently -- accidentally, not on purpose

Incontrovertible -- undisputed (incontrovertible evidence)

Introvert -- a shy, not outgoing person

Perverse -- contrary, willfully counter to what is expected 

                            (a perverse idea having dingoes as pets)

Pervert -- to turn away from what is right (to pervert the    

                                          meaning of the plan I proposed)

Vertigo -- dizziness (feeling vertigo in the high tower)


Lesson 13

MISS = send

Demise -- death, downfall (demise of the VCR)

Emissary -- person sent out on a mission (an emissary 

                                                                   from Spain)

Emit -- to send out, give off (emitted radiation)

Intermittent -- coming and going at intervals (intermittent 

                                                             windshield wipers)

Remiss -- negligent, careless (remiss about cleaning up)

Remission -- lessening of symptoms (remission of the flu)

Remit -- to send money (remit $10) OR to forgive (as in 

                                                                            one’s sins)

LOCUT = speak

Circumlocution -- roundabout or indirect way of talking

Colloquy -- a conversation (a colloquy between teacher and 


Eloquent --  speaking with force (an eloquent speech)

Loquacious -- talkative (a loquacious neighbor is always 


Obloquy -- abusive language (obloquy against the thief)


FER = bearing, producing

Somniferous -- causing sleep (somniferous speech)

Vociferous -- crying out noisily (vociferous objections to 

                                                                       the idea)





Lesson 14



Adonis -- a handsome young man

Aegis -- a shield or protection (under the aegis of the 

                                                             United Nations)

Amazon -- a tall, strong, bold woman

Bacchanalian -- wild with drunknness (a bacchanalian 

                                          celebration after the game)

Cassandra -- one who prophesies doom or disaster

Chimerical -- unreal, bizarre (a chimerical plan to succeed)

Draconian -- cruel, harsh, severe (Draconian punishment 

                                                                   for the crime)

Fauna -- animal life of a particular region

Flora -- plant life of a particular region

Forum -- a place for open discussion of ideas

Hector -- to bully or intimidate (a hectoring mob)

Herculean -- difficult, requiring great strength (Herculean 


Hermetic -- airtight (hermetic seal on the jar)

Iridescent -- having the colors of the rainbow (iridescent 

                                                                   soap bubbles)

Jovial -- jolly, good-humored (a jovial disposition)

Labyrinthine -- maze-like, confusing (the labyrinthine 

                                                    hallways in the castle)

Laconic - using few words, not talking much

Lethargic -- drowsy, sluggish, tired (lethargic behavior 

                                                         after not sleeping)


Lesson 15




Martial -- war-like, pertaining to war (martial law )

Mentor -- trusted advisor, tutor

Mercurial -- changeable, fickle, erratic OR lively, animated

Narcissistic  --in love with oneself (narcissistic personality)

Nectar -- something very delicious to drink

Nemesis -- opponent, rival OR agent of punishment

Odyssey -- long series of wanderings (a summer odyssey)

Paean -- song or hymn of praise (a paean to a great man)

Plutocratic -- having influence because of one’s wealth 

                                                        (plutocratic bankers)

Protean -- assuming different shapes and form (protean 

                                                         skills of the actor)

Pyrrhic -- ruinous, gained at a great cost (a Pyrrhic victory)

Saturnine -- gloomy, in a bad mood (saturnine after the 

                                                                   rains came)

Siren -- a seductive, sexy woman (the siren tempted me)

Spartan -- rigorously simple, lacking luxuries (Spartan 

                                                                 living quarters)

Stentorian -- very loud (stentorian voice)

Tantalize -- tease by arousing expectations (tantalize with 

                                                               a chance to win)

Thespian -- pertaining to drama or acting 


Lesson 16


PHOBIA – fear of

Acrophobia  -- fear of heights

Agoraphobia -- fear of open spaces

Claustrophobia -- fear of enclosed spaces

Hydrophobia -- fear of water OR the disease rabies

Xenophobia -- fear of foreigners


PHIL – love of

Philanthropy -- love of humanity, as shown through 

                                                 donations or actions

Philately -- stamp collecting

Bibliophile -- lover of books


MIS – hatred of

Misanthropy -- hatred of all humanity

Misogyny -- hatred of women


DYS – bad, difficult

Dysentery -- inflammation of the intestines

Dysfunction -- poor or abnormal functioning

Dyslexia -- difficulty reading 

Dyspepsia -- bad digestion (dyspepsia after a spicy meal)


Lesson 17


EU = good, well

Eugenics -- science of improving hereditary qualities 

                                                        through breeding

Eulogize -- to write or speak in praise of someone 

                                           (eulogize a departed friend)

Euphemism -- a softer way of saying something (“passed 


Euphonious -- pleasing to the ear (euphonious music)

Euphoria -- joy, great happiness (euphoria over the win)

Euthanasia -- “mercy-killing,” practice of letting a sick 

                                                      person choose to die


MACRO – big      MICRO – small

Macrocosm -- a representation of a small unit by a larger 

                               one (is Congress a macrocosm of how 

                               my family gets along?)

Microcosm -- a representation of a larger unit by a smaller 

                                     one (is MV a microcosm of how the   

                                      world out there operates?)


A, AN – not, without

Amoral -- having no moral standards, unaware of right and 


Amorphous -- having no defined shape (the  amoeba is 


Anarchy -- absence of rule or law or government

Anomaly -- deviation from the norm (the F she got is a 

                                                          one-time anomaly)

Anonymous -- nameless, of unknown author

Atheism -- denial of the existence of God

Atrophy -- lack of growth from disuse or disease (atrophy 

                                                                   of his muscles)

Atypical -- not typical or usual (atypical behavior)


Lesson 18


MONO -  one                         POLY – many

Monolith -- obelisk, column, single stone of large size

Monomania -- obsession (monomania with cats)

Polyglot -- one who speaks multiple languages

Polygon -- plane figure having many angles and sides


LOGY – study of

Anthropology --study of origins and customs of mankind

Ecology -- study of the relation of living things to the 


Pathology -- study of the causes of disease

Theology -- study of religion


BIO – life

Symbiosis -- living together in harmony (symbiosis 

                                                   between the species)

TOMY – cutting

Dichotomy -- division into two parts (dichotomy between 

                                                         the rich and the poor)

Tome -- a large book or volume (weighty tome about 


POD = foot

Podiatrist -- foot doctor


Lesson 19

HOMO – same           HETERO – different

Homogeneous --of the same kind (homogeneous grouping)

Heterogeneous -- differing in kind, dissimilar

Heterodox -- opposed to accepted beliefs (heterodox ideas 

                                                                  of the radicals)

Orthodox -- conforming to approved doctrine


HYPER – too much    HYPO – too little

Hypertension -- high blood pressure

Hyperactive -- overactive

Hyperbole -- an exaggeration for literary effect

Hypothetical -- assumed without proof for the purpose of 


ENDO – within          EXO – outside

Exotic -- of foreign origin, very unusual (exotic animals)


ARCHY – rule

Oligarchy -- government in which only a few have power


GEO – earth

Geopolitics -- study of government as geography affects its 


PATH – feeling, suffering

Antipathy -- strong dislike (an antipathy for spiders)

Apathy -- indifference, lack of feeling (apathy towards 


Empathy -- complete understanding of another’s feelings

Telepathy -- communication between minds without sense 



Lesson 20


MORPH – form, shape

Anthropomorphic -- in a shape of a human 

                                    (anthropomorphic view of the gods)

Metamorphosis -- change of form (metamorphosis from 

                                                         cocoon to butterfly)

PERI – around

Peripheral -- on the edge (peripheral vision) OR only 

                       slightly relevant (peripheral questions)



Aficionado -- devoted follower of a sport or art 

Desperado -- bold, dangerous criminal

Macho  -- manly, showing strong masculine traits

Peon -- servant, unskilled worker

Renegade  -- traitor, deserter (renegade from the army)

Bravado -- pretense of bravery, fake display of courage

Flotilla -- small fleet of ships

Bonanza  -- rich mine, source of sudden wealth (a bonanza 

                                                                     of treasure)

Sierra -- mountain range with sharp peaks

Peccadillo -- slight offense, small fault (being late was his 



Lesson 21



Blithe--happy, without a care (blithe attitude towards work)

Buoyant -- cheerful, not easily depressed (a buoyant 

                                                                 approach to life)

Complacent  -- self-satisfied, too pleased with oneself 

                                              (complacent about winning)

Jocund -- light-hearted, in a joking way (a jocund mood)

Jubilant -- showing joy, rejoicing (jubilant after winning)

Jubilation -- rejoicing, great joy



Ascetic -- denying oneself pleasures or luxuries (monks 

                                                           lived an ascetic life)

Chagrined--ashamed, embarrassed (chagrined by my error)

Compunction -- regret, remorse (no compunction for 

                                                  breaking the window)

Contrite--showing regret for wrongdoing (contrite in court)

Disgruntled -- in a bad mood, unhappy with a situation 

                                                  (disgruntled employees)

Maudlin -- overly sentimental (maudlin movie about 

                                                                  sad weddings)

Pensive -- deep in thought (pensive over the game)

Poignant -- affecting or moving the emotions (a poignant scene after the flood)

Sullen -- resentful, in a bad mood  (sullen after losing)

Tribulation -- suffering, distress (suffering many 

                                    tribulations during the trip)


Lesson 22


Cherubic -- chubby and innocent like a little angel

Emaciated -- unnaturally thin (emaciated supermodels)

Haggard -- having a wasted and exhausted appearance 

                                                  (haggard in the desert)

Svelte -- slender, graceful (svelte ballet dancer)



Adulation -- flattery, excessive praise (blind adulation for 

                                                                          the leader)

Cajole -- to coax, persuade (cajoled into going along)

Lackey -- a follower who is very obedient (the lackey did 

                                                            what his boss said)

Obsequious -- showing too much willingness to please 

                                                      (obsequious behavior)

Sycophant -- self-seeking flatterer, a parasite



Badger -- tease, annoy, nag (badger him with requests)

Halcyon -- calm, peaceful (halcyon winds on the island)

Parasitic -- living at the expense of another, sponging off